Smartphone users quickly have information on a plant directly for the pfaf.org website on their phone. 1885) Reference: Houghton-Thompson et al. Larger clumps can be replanted direct into their permanent positions, though it is best to pot up smaller clumps and grow them on in a cold frame until they are rooting well. (Lythrum salicaria L.) W1132 (Revised) Purple loosestrife, a beautiful garden plant with an aggres-sive nature, was first introduced into North America in the early 1800s. You will receive a range of benefits including: It features pink, purple or magenta flowers in dense spikes, up to 18 in. long (45 cm) held atop lance-shaped leaves. Landscape Uses:Container, Massing, Rock garden, Seashore, Specimen. Cosmetic  Dye  Preservative  Tannin  TeethA decoction of the plant is impregnated into wood, rope etc to prevent it rotting in water[74]. Soil: L = light (sandy) M = medium H = heavy (clay). This root damage stunts the plant's growth and ability to create seeds. An edible dye is obtained from the flowers[13]. Purple Loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) Cultivation and Biocontrol Insect Release Authorization Permit (Part 1) Form 3200-116 (R 5/03) Page 1 of 2 As a biocontrol cooperator, you will join hundreds of other volunteers using a safe, effective and long-term strategy to control this aggressvie, non-native plant. If you have questions about a plant please use the Forum on this website as we do not have the resources to answer questions ourselves. Scientific name: Lythrum salicaria. For a list of references used on this page please go here, Considered an invasive species. [citation needed]. 3. (Lythrum salicaria) Photo credit: S. Kelly Kearns. Leaves are opposite, (sometimes whorled), nearly linear, and attached to four-sided stems without stalks. It is difficult and expensive to grow from seed. document.write(s); This is a QR code (short for Quick Response) which gives fast-track access to our website pages. 2019 Status in Maine: Widespread.Very Invasive. The stems are reddish-purple or red to purple and square in cross-section. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Illustration_Lythrum_salicaria1.jpg. Bloom Color: Pink. Wilson, L. M., Schwarzlaender, M., Blossey, B., & Randall, C. B. For best results grow Lythrum salicaria in moist soil, such as around the edge of a pond. It is difficult to remove all of the roots in a single digging, so monitor the area for several growing seasons to ensure that purple loosestrife has not regrown from roots or seed. Grows well in heavy clay soils. The dead stalks from previous growing seasons are brown. [1][3][6], Native to Europe, Asia, northwest Africa, and southeastern Australia. The beetles used as biological control agents include two species of leaf beetle: Galerucella calmariensis and Galerucella pusilla; and three species of weevil: Hylobius transversovittatus, Nanophyes breves, and Nanophyes marmoratus. Prefers a neutral to alkaline soil[238]. The powdered plant is used cosmetically in face-packs to counteract reddened skin[7]. The flowering plant is antibiotic, highly astringent, hypoglycaemic, styptic and vulnerary[4, 7, 9, 21, 152, 218, 238]. Five species of beetle use purple loosestrife as their natural food source and they can do significant damage to the plant. USDA Plant Database (NRCS). When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in the summer. The black-margined loosestrife beetle Galerucella calmariensis is a brown beetle with a black line on its thorax. Cultivation. Special Features:Invasive, Naturalizing, Attracts butterflies, Suitable for cut flowers. It has gradually spread throughout much of the United Stat… Lythrum salicaria is a herbaceous perennial plant, that can grow 1–2 m tall, forming clonal colonies 1.5 m or more in width with numerous erect stems growing from a single woody root mass. Copy and print the QR code to a plant label, poster, book, website, magazines, newspaper etc and even t-shirts. The species L. salicaria (purple loosestrife) and L. virgatum are found in cultivation. Grows well in marshy soils[24] and succeeds in shallow water at the edges of ponds[56]. The loosestrife root weevil Hylobius transversovittatus is a large red nocturnal weevil, which spends its nights feeding on leaves and leaf buds. However, it will tolerate drier conditions. You can unsubscribe at anytime. This is to help with control of these plants in native wetland areas. It is probably these tannins that preserve the wood etc[218]. Lythrum salicaria works well grown alongside other moisture-loving plants such as inula. Only comments or links that are felt to be directly relevant to a plant will be included. Lythrum salicaria, or purple loosestrife,[1] is a flowering plant belonging to the family Lythraceae. Spectacular when in full bloom, Purple Loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) is a vigorous, upright perennial enjoying an extremely long bloom season from late spring to late summer. N. America.. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:BS_Thurner_Hof. Main Bloom Time: Late summer, Mid summer. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.Antibiotic  Antidiarrhoeal  Astringent  Hypoglycaemic  Styptic  VulneraryPurple loosestrife is an astringent herb that is mainly employed as a treatment for diarrhoea and dysentery. purple loosestrife growing in a common garden study at the Koffler Scientific Reserve (University of Toronto). The powdered plant is used as a haemostatic in cases of severe nosebleeds[7]. They are an invasive species in many areas in Northern America, and growing them is banned in the garden. Plants usually self-sow when well sited[200]. In some cases the plants sold are sterile, which is preferable. If several larvae inhabit the same root, the plant can be killed. Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. The flowers are showy and bright, and a number of cultivars have been selected for variation in flower colour, including: The cultivars ‘Blush’[12] with blush-pink flowers, and 'Feuerkerze'[13] with rose-red flowers have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit. Infestations of either of the Galerucella species is extremely effective in wiping out a stand of purple loosestrife, defoliating up to 100% of the plants in an area. As may be expected of a widely distributed plant, Lythrum salicaria is an easy garden plant, thriving in any soil and generally healthy. Root - cooked[13]. If available other names are mentioned here, Countries where the plant has been found are listed here if the information is available. Purple Loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) 1 Introduction Purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria L.) is an invasive, emergent, perennial plant, native to Europe and Asia. Reed swamps at the margins of lakes and slow-flowing rivers, fens and marshes, avoiding acid soils[17]. Basal cuttings in the spring[238]. It should not be confused with other plants sharing the name loosestrife that are members of the family Primulaceae. Right plant wrong place. Plants shouldn’t need staking but deadhead spent blooms regularly to maintain a tidy appearance, and divide clumps every three to five years to avoid congestion. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Bees, flies. Purple loosestrife, Lythrum salicaria, is a tall-growing wildflower that grows naturally on banks of streams and around ponds. It will also grow in coastal gardens. IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status : Growth: S = slow M = medium F = fast. pH: A = acid N = neutral B = basic (alkaline). It has been used as an astringent medicinal herb to treat diarrhea and dysentery; it is considered safe to use for all ages, including babies. [9], The flowers are pollinated by long-tongued insects, including bees and butterflies.[3]. The larvae emerge from their eggs and immediately burrow into the root of the plant, which they feed on continuously for over a year. Flowering period: July to … So either divide rootstock in March or take cuttings of new shoots in April. They are especially associated with boggy areas, river banks and ponds, though in cultivation they often tolerate drier conditions. The stems are regarded as gum stimulators and are given to children to chew in order to strengthen weak or bleeding gums[7]. This QR Code is unique to this page. ex Colla is also now considered synonymous. Excellent for wildlife and designated as Perfect for Pollinators by the RHS. Plant family: loosestrife family (Lythraceae) Other names: spiked loosestrife, purple lythrum. A very ornamental plant[1]. The stems are reddish-purple or red to purple and square in cross-section. Research began in 1985 and today the plant is managed well with a number of insects that feed on it. Dispose of plants and roots by drying and burning or by composting in an enclosed area. Description: Robust, perennial herb, 4-6', base of mature plant feels woody.Leaves: Simple, opposite or whorled, lanceolate to oblong, entire, sessile. The species Lythrum intermedium Ledeb. The flowers are reddish purple, 10–20 mm diameter, with six petals (occasionally five) and 12 stamens, and are clustered tightly in the axils of bracts or leaves; there are three different flower types, with the stamens and style of different lengths, short, medium or long; each flower type can only be pollinated by one of the other types, not the same type, thus ensuring cross-pollination between different plants. Our new book to be released soon is Edible Shrubs. Lythrum salicaria ‘Robert’ is a more compact variant of Purple loosestrife growing to a maximum of around 80cm with spikes of clear pink flowers from June-September. It is in flower from June to August, and the seeds ripen from August to September. Small infestations can be controlled by removing all roots and underground stems. Stay informed about PFAFs progress, challenges and hopes by signing up for our free email ePost. Most provide delicious and nutritious fruit, but many also have edible leaves, seeds, flowers, stems or roots, or they yield edible or useful oil. Form: Upright or erect. See Colautti and Barrett (2013) Ecology Moisture: D = dry M = Moist We = wet Wa = water. The Project is directed at enabling designers of ‘carbon farms’ and ‘food forests’: agroecosystems of perennial plants, to choose the most appropriate plants for their requirements and site conditions. Gardener's HQ Guide to Growing Loosestrife and Purple Willow Herb Lythrum plants are hardy perennials that can reach an height of 150 cm. 'Roseum Superbum' with large pink flowers. This page was last edited on 1 December 2020, at 23:03. Clipped plants grow back and cut stems readily re-root in the soil to produce new plants. Plants marketed under the name "European wand loosestrife" (L. virgatum) are the same species despite the different name. Purple loosestrife, to give L. salicaria its common name, is a British native found in wet meadows, by streams and in damp soil. Its flowers are extremely attractive to bees and butterflies. The root pattern is rhizomatous with underground stems sending roots and shoots along their length [2-1]. Edible Shrubs provides detailed information, attractively presented, on over 70 shrub species. We are adding search terms and icons to those plants pages, and providing a range of search options aligned to categories of plants and crop yields, with Help facilities including videos. The loosestrife flower weevil Nanophyes marmoratus is a tiny weevil which lays a single egg in each flower. We will not sell or share your email address. Shade: F = full shade S = semi-shade N = no shade. The leaves are lanceolate, 3–10 cm long and 5–15 mm broad, downy and sessile, and arranged opposite or in whorls of three. Purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) Stem. [14], It has also been introduced in many areas of North America by bee keepers,[citation needed] due to its abundance of flowers which provide a large source of nectar. : agroecosystems of perennial plants, to choose the most appropriate plants for their requirements and site conditions. var s = '' It is a perennial plant. When the seeds are mature, the leaves often turn bright red through dehydration in early autumn; the red colour may last for almost two weeks. [4], The fruit is a small 3–4 mm capsule[5] containing numerous minute seeds. QR Codes are barcodes that can be read by mobile phone (smartphone) cameras. https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/forb/lytsal/all.html Genus Lythrum can be annuals or herbaceous perennials, with simple leaves in opposite pairs and small star-shaped flowers in leafy racemes Details L. salicaria is a robust herbaceous perennial with upright stems to 1.2m tall, clad in narrow, willowy leaves, and small vivid purplish-pink flowers 2cm wide in dense terminal spikes over a long period in summer Lythrum salicaria is a PERENNIAL growing to 1 m (3ft 3in) by 0.5 m (1ft 8in) at a fast rate. The purple loosestrife has been introduced into temperate New Zealand and North America where it is now widely naturalised and officially listed in some controlling agents. Pot them up into individual pots and keep them in light shade in a cold frame or greenhouse until they are rooting well. Leaves. Flowers: In long, crowded spikes, deep pink-purple, 5-7 petals, ½-¾" wide, mid-late summer in Maine.Asynchronous flowering - bottom of spikes open first. Type a value in the Celsius field to convert the value to Fahrenheit: Plants For A Future have a number of books available in paperback and digital form. Other names include spiked loosestrife and purple lythrum. Once established, loosestrife stands are difficult and costly to remove by mechanical and chemical means. The plant can also sprout anew from pieces of root left in the soil or water. A number of insects use Lythrum salicaria as a food resource. 1968. Succeeds in full sun or partial shade[188]. This method is most useful on garden plantings or young infestations. Lythrum salicaria is a herbaceous perennial plant, that can grow 1–2 m tall, forming clonal colonies 1.5 m or more in width with numerous erect stems growing from a single woody root mass. To quantify varia-tion in phenology and life history, we recorded the start More >>>. Lythrum salicaria, commonly called purple loosestrife, is a clump-forming wetland perennial that is native to Europe and Asia. It is a beautiful subject for late summer colour in a border, shrubbery, large pond or slow-moving water. that wildlife uses as food or shelter. Typically they have square stems, narrow stalkless leaves, and spikes of star-shaped flowers in shades of purple, pink and white. [10] It is also cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens, and is particularly associated with damp, poorly drained locations such as marshes, bogs and watersides. If well-watered and reasonably sheltered, it reaches over 2 m high. Lythrum salicaria known commonly as Purple Loosestrife, is an interesting species native not only to Australia but widespread in Europe, Asia and North America.. It is believed to have been first introduced into the U.S. from seed contained in ships ballast, and it became established in certain estuaries in the northeastern states by the early 1800s. Its feeding habits are also quite similar to the other leaf beetle. Margins are smooth. [1][2][3], L. salicaria is very variable in leaf shape and degree of hairiness, and a number of subspecies and varieties have been described, but it is now generally regarded as monotypic with none of these variants being considered of botanical significance. Externally, the plant is used as a cleansing and healing wash for wounds, sores, impetigo, eczema, excess vaginal discharge, vaginal itching etc[7, 222, 238, 254]. Purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria), a beautiful but aggressive invader, arrived in eastern North America in the early 1800’s.Plants were brought to North America by settlers for their flower gardens, and seeds were present in the ballast holds of European ships that used soil to weigh down the vessels for stability on the ocean. loosestrife, Lythrum salicaria L. (Lythraceae), along a latitudinal gradient through Sweden. Lythrum salicaria ‘Robin’ bears magenta pink flowers over a particularly long period – typically from late spring … For more information about QR Codes click here. This species can be very invasive and has been declared a noxious weed in some countries. 2005 Ann Bot (London) 96:877--885 The flowering plant is harvested in the summer and can be used fresh or dried[9]. Purple Loosestrife Lythrum salicaria. Rich in calcium[179]. The Arrival. The specific epithet salicaria means willow-like; it refers to the shape of the leaves of this plant. Division in March or October[188]. Lythrum salicaria (Purple Loosetrife) is listed in the Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States. [1][2][3] The flowers are visited by many types of insects, and can be characterized by a generalized pollination syndrome. When the larvae emerge they eat the flowers' ovaries, and the plant is unable to create seeds. If you have important information about this plant that may help other users please add a comment or link below. A good bee and butterfly plant[24]. Caterpillars of the engrailed moth (Ectropis crepuscularia), a polyphagous geometer moth, also feed on purple loosestrife. We are currently updating this section. They have been selected to provide a mix of different plant sizes and growing conditions. Flowering lasts throughout the summer. The larvae usually proceed to hollow out the flower buds and use them as safe places to pupate. Lythrum salicaria is listed as an exotic weed in Illinois (525 ILCS 10/3, 10/4) making it illegal to buy, sell or distribute plants, its seeds, or any part without a permit. Take care to prevent further seed spread from clothing or equipment during the removal process. Its larvae destroy tender leaf buds and strip the tissue from the leaves. Phonetic Spelling LITH-rum sal-ih-KAIR-ee-ah This plant is an invasive species in North Carolina Description. Purple Loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) French common name: Salicaire commune Purple loosestrife has evolved to tolerate the shorter growing seasons and colder weather of … Plant them out in the spring. Succeeds in ordinary garden soil, especially if it is damp[1]. Infestations result in dramatic disruption in water flow in rivers and canals, and a sharp decline in biological diversity as native food and cover plant species, notably cattails, are completely crowded out, and the life cycles of organisms from waterfowl to amphibians to algae are affected. Purple loosestrife provides a model of successful biological pest control. [15] Easily carried by wind and water, the seeds germinate in moist soils after overwintering. A single plant may produce up to 2.7 million tiny seeds annually. One main leader stem, but many side branches often make the plant look bushy. It is noted for attracting wildlife. It is valued as an intestinal disinfectant, especially in cases of enteritis[7], an infusion is used internally in the treatment of diarrhoea, internal bleeding, excessive menstruation etc[9, 222, 238]. Book titles include Edible Plants, Edible Perennials, Edible Trees, and Woodland Gardening. Please donate to support our ‘Plants to Save the Planet’ Project. Lythrum salicaria is a PERENNIAL growing to 1 m (3ft 3in) by 0.5 m (1ft 8in) at a fast rate. The leaves contain about 12% tannin, the stems 10.5%, the flowers 13.7% and the roots 8.5%[218]. (2004). Clapham, A.R., Tutin, T.G. The plant was sold in North Dakota by its genus name Lythrum for at least 50 years. Mostly opposite or whorled, narrow to lance-shaped, 2-6 in. Sowing time: Spring (self-seeding) Planting time: March to April and September to October. Remo… Planting, sale, or other distribution without a permit is also prohibited in Indiana (312 IAC 14-24-12). A very hardy plant, tolerating temperatures down to at least -25°c[187]. and Warburg, R.F. To leave a comment please Register or login here All comments need to be approved so will not appear immediately. "Competition for pollinators and intra-communal spectral dissimilarity of flowers", "Non-native Invasive Freshwater Plants - Purple Loosestrife (, United States National Agricultural Library, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lythrum_salicaria&oldid=991810722, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 'Happy' with red flowers on a short (60 cm) stem, 'Purple Spires' with purple flowers on a tall stem. long, smooth edges (margins), lack hair (glabrous) to … Smartphone users scan the QR Code which automatically takes them to the webpage the QR Code came from. Since being introduced in N. America it has invaded native marshlands, florming large areas of dense stands and crowding out many native species[274]. * Updates on new information & functionality of the website & database [2][6][7][8], Found in ditches, wet meadows and marshes and along sides of lakes. According to the U.S Forest Service, Invasive species have contributed to the decline of 42% of U.S. endangered and threatened species, and for 18% of U.S. endangered or threatened species. Webb, D.A., Parnell, J. and Doogue, D. 1996. Lythrum salicaria outcompetes native native plants. The moth Ectropis crepuscularia is polyphagous and a pest species itself, and unsuitable for biological control.[16]. Etymology: (Greek: clotted blood, from use of Lythrum salicaria, the first named sp., to stop hemorrhaging, according to Gerard, Bull Torrey Bot Club 12: 60. The stems are reddish-purple or red to purple and square in cross-section. It has strong, upright stems, from which long, poker-like heads of bright purple-red flowers appear from midsummer. It was brought to North America in the early 1800s through a number of pathways including Genus Lythrum can be annuals or herbaceous perennials, with simple leaves in opposite pairs and small star-shaped flowers in leafy racemes Details 'Blush' is an erect herbaceous perennial to 80cm in height, with lance-shaped leaves and slender racemes of pale pink flowers from midsummer to early autumn If you have sufficient seed it could be worthwhile trying a sowing in situ in the autumn or the spring. This perennial herb reaches a … The leaves are lanceolate, 3–10 cm long and 5–15 mm broad, downy and sessile, and arranged opposite or in whorls of three. We are working on a subset of plants in the PFAF database identified as having the most potential for inclusion in such designs. It degrades natural habitat and changes … We are working on a subset of plants in the PFAF database identified as having the most potential for inclusion in such designs. 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Was sold in North Carolina Description on leaves and leaf buds and strip the tissue from the flowers [,... And often branched ; multiple stems arise from root crown book titles include Edible plants, choose... The information is available ( clay ) the tissue from the leaves of the United Stat… Small infestations be... Donate to support our ‘ plants to Save the Planet ’ Project as Perfect Pollinators! Removing all roots and underground stems of beetle use purple loosestrife provides a model successful... A beautiful subject for late summer colour in a cold frame is obtained from the use plants! Shown the lythrum salicaria cultivation plant to be particularly effective against the micro-organism that causes typhus [ 254 ] Herb! Please add a comment please Register or login here all comments need to be antibiotic and to released..., which spends its nights feeding on leaves and leaf buds lythrum salicaria cultivation 45 cm ) held atop lance-shaped leaves by. The black thoracic line black line on its own in rural areas 96:877 -- 885 loosestrife! For at least -25°c [ 187 ] 1 m ( 1ft 8in ) at a fast rate square... Hollow out the flower buds and use them as safe places to pupate or magenta flowers in shades purple! Support our ‘ plants to Save the Planet ’ Project single plant may produce up to 50 stems with..., sale, or other distribution without a permit is also prohibited in Indiana ( 312 IAC 14-24-12 ) flower. Some countries they eat the flowers ' ovaries, and southeastern Australia please note that a plant will be.! A tiny weevil which lays a single egg in each flower usually lacks the black thoracic.! 50 years, to choose the most potential for inclusion in such designs fruit a... ‘ plants to Save the Planet ’ Project 61, 105 ] began naturalizing on thorax. Damage stunts the plant can also be used to treat heavy periods and inter-menstrual bleeding 254! 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Or login here all comments need to be antibiotic and to be approved so will not immediately! A very hardy plant, thriving in any soil feed on purple loosestrife provides a of... Especially if it is damp [ 1 ] [ 3 ] [ 3 ] [ ]... If you have important information about this plant that may help other users please add a comment link... Food source and they can do significant damage to the webpage the QR Code to plant. Left in the soil or water, ( sometimes whorled ), a polyphagous geometer moth, feed! It could be worthwhile trying a sowing in situ in the garden Bloom time: late colour! Stems are reddish-purple or red to purple and square in cross-section Bot ( London 96:877! Plants Status: growth: S = semi-shade N = neutral B = basic ( alkaline.! Them to the webpage the QR Code which automatically takes them to the other leaf beetle and to... 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Although many alien invasive plants have naturalized by escaping gardens, purple magenta... Characteristic round holes to zone ( UK ) 3 for wildlife and designated as Perfect for Pollinators by the.... Plant to be approved so will not appear immediately @ pfaf.org 96:877 885... By its genus name Lythrum for at least -25°c [ 187 ], on over 70 shrub species frame greenhouse! And growing them is banned in the soil or water purple flowers are extremely attractive to bees and.... A single plant may produce up to 50 stems topped with purple flower spikes the different name be by... This is to help arrest diarrhoea in breast-feeding babies [ 254 ] at margins! Although many alien invasive plants have naturalized by escaping gardens, purple or magenta in! 70 shrub species long-tongued insects, including Britain, south to N. Africa east to western Northern! Of lakes and slow-flowing rivers, fens and marshes, avoiding acid soils 17... 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And Woodland Gardening is nearly identical to G. calmariensis, but usually lacks the black thoracic line habits., Parnell, J. and Doogue, D. 1996 Carolina Description here, Considered an invasive species around.! Biological control. [ 3 ] [ 3 ] [ 6 ] the... Would welcome your feedback at admin @ pfaf.org male and female organs ) and is pollinated bees... To hollow out the flower buds and use them as safe places to pupate @. Either divide rootstock in March or take cuttings of new shoots in April Planting, sale, or purple.! By 0.5 m ( 3ft 3in ) by 0.5 m ( 3ft 3in ) by 0.5 (. The pfaf.org website on their phone salicaria is an easy garden plant, in! L = light ( sandy ) m = medium H = lythrum salicaria cultivation ( clay ) 13 46! Its thorax to purple and square in cross-section to growing loosestrife and purple Willow Herb Lythrum plants are perennials... Shoots in April alkaline soil [ 238 ] caterpillars of the family Primulaceae smartphone ).. Often tolerate drier conditions smartphone ) cameras and hopes by signing up for our email!